Educación Médica

Can Individualized Learning Plans in an advanced clinical experience course for fourth year medical students foster Self- Directed Learning?

Can Individualized Learning Plans in an advanced clinical experience course for fourth year medical students foster Self- Directed Learning? Publicado en: lun, 26 sep 2016 10:25:00 -0500
  • educacion medica

Maribeth B. Chitkara, Daniel Satnic2, Wei-Hsin Lu, Howard Fleit, Roderick A. Go and Latha Chandran
Chitkara et al. BMC Medical Education (2016) 16:232


Background: Residency programs have utilized Individualized Learning Plans (ILPs) to customize resident education while undergraduate medical education has not done so in a meaningful way. We discuss the use of ILPs within a fourth year medical school course to facilitate self-directed learning (SDL).
Methods: At Stony Brook University School of Medicine, an ILP component was added to the Advanced Clinical Experience (ACE) course for fourth year students. Each completed an ILP outlining personal learning goals and strategies to achieve them. An adaptation of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (Duncan T and McKeachie W, Educ Psych 40(2):117-128, 2005 and Cook DA et al., Med Ed 45:1230-1240, 2011) was used to measure success of ILPs in improving SDL. Qualitative data analysis was conducted on the ILPs and
Results: Forty-eight students participated. Two of the four SDL sub-domains identified on the MSLQ showed improvement; self-efficacy (p = .001) and self-regulation (p = .002). ¿Medical Knowledge' was the competency most frequently identified as an area of concentration (90 %) and professionalism was selected least frequently (4 %). A higher percentage (83 %) of students who reported complete achievement of their ILP goals also reported feeling better prepared for entering residency.
Conclusions: ILPs improve SDL strategies among medical students and may serve as useful tools to help shape future learning goals as they transition to residency training.
Keywords: Individualized learning plans, Self-directed learning, Fourth year medical students
Abbreviations: AAMC, Association of American Medical Colleges; ACE, Advanced Clinical Experience; ACGME,
Accreditation council on graduate medical education; ILP, Individualized learning plans; MSLQ, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire; SDL, Self-directed learning; SMART, Specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, timely


Role-playing is an effective instructional strategy for genetic counseling training: an investigation and comparative study

Role-playing is an effective instructional strategy for genetic counseling training: an investigation and comparative study Publicado en: lun, 12 sep 2016 09:57:00 -0500
  • educacion medica
  • noticiasgenetica

Xiao-feng Xu1, Yan Wang1, Yan-yan Wang1, Ming Song2, Wen-gang Xiao3 and Yun Bai1*

DOI 10.1186/s12909-016-0756-4
Background: Genetic diseases represent a significant public health challenge in China that will need to be addressed by a correspondingly large number of professional genetic counselors. However, neither an official training program for genetic counseling, nor formal board ertification, was available in China before 2015. In 2009, a genetic counseling training program based on role-playing was implemented as a pilot study at the Third Military Medical University to train third-year medical students.
Methods: Questionnaires on participant attitudes to the program and role-playing were randomly administered to 324 students after they had finished their training. Pre- and post-training instructional tests, focusing on 42 key components of genetic counseling, were administered randomly to 200 participants to assess mastery of each component. Finally, scores in final examinations of 578 participants from 2009 to 2011 were compared to scores obtained by 614 non-participating students from 2006 to 2008 to further assess program efficacy.
Results: Both the training program and the instructional strategy of role-playing were accepted by most participants. Students believed that role-playing improved their practice of genetic counseling and medical genetics, enhanced their communication skills, and would likely contribute to future professional performance. The average understanding of 40 of the key points in genetic counseling was significantly improved, and most students approached excellent
levels of mastery. Scores in final examinations and the percentages of students scoring above 90 were also significantly elevated.
Conclusions: Role-playing is a feasible and effective instructional strategy for training genetic counselors in China as well as in other developing countries.
Keywords: Educational and training program, Genetic counseling, Role-playing, Medical curricula
Abbreviations: TMMU, Third Military Medical University

Distance learning ects and flipped classroom in the anatomy learning: comparative study of the use of augmented reality, video and notes

Distance learning ects and flipped classroom in the anatomy learning: comparative study of the use of augmented reality, video and notes Publicado en: lun, 26 sep 2016 10:26:00 -0500
  • educacion medica
Javier Ferrer-Torregrosa, Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Rodríguez, Javier Torralba-Estelles, Fernanda Garzón-Farinós, Marcelo Pérez-Bermejo and Nadia Fernández-Ehrling
Ferrer-Torregrosa et al. BMC Medical Education (2016) 16:230
Background: The establishment of the ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) is one of the pillars of the European Space of Higher Education. This way of accounting for the time spent in training has two essential parts, classroom teaching (work with the professor) and distance earning (work without the professor, whether in an individual or collective way). Much has been published on the distance learning part, but less on the classroom teaching section. In this work, the authors investigate didactic strategies and associated aids for distance learning work in a concept based on flipped classroom where transmitting information is carried out with aids that the professor prepares, so that the student works in an independent way before the classes, thus being able to dedicate the classroom teaching time to more complex learning and being able to count on the professor's help.
Methods: Three teaching aids applied to the study of anatomy have been compared: Notes with images, videos, and augmented reality. Four dimensions have been compared: the time spent, the acquired learnings, the metacognitive perception, and the prospects of the use of augmented reality for study.
Results: The results show the effectiveness, in all aspects, of augmented reality when compared with the rest of aids. The questionnaire assessed the acquired knowledge through a course exam, where 5.60 points were obtained for the notes group, 6.54 for the video group, and 7.19 for the augmented reality group. That is 0.94 more points for the video group compared with the notes and 1.59 more points for the augmented reality group compared with the notes group.
Conclusions: This research demonstrates that, although technology has not been sufficiently developed for education, it is expected that it can be improved in both the autonomous work of the student and the academic training of health science students and that we can teach how to learn. Moreover, one can see how the grades of the students who studied with augmented reality are more grouped and that there is less dispersion in the marks compared with other materials.
Keywords: ECTS, Flipped classroom, Metacognition, Anatomy, Augmented reality, Autonomous learning
Abbreviations: AR, Augmented reality; ECTS, European Credit Transfer System; EHEA, European Higher Education Area;
VR, Virtual reality

The role of feedback in improving the effectiveness of workplace based assessments: a systematic review

The role of feedback in improving the effectiveness of workplace based assessments: a systematic review Publicado en: lun, 26 sep 2016 10:24:00 -0500
  • educacion medica

Habiba Saedon, Shizalia Salleh, Arun Balakrishnan, Christopher HE Imray and Mahmud Saedon
Saedon et al. BMC Medical Education 2012, 12:25


Background: With recent emphasis placed on workplace based assessment (WBA) as a method of formative performance assessment, there is limited evidence in the current literature regarding the role of feedback in improving the effectiveness of WBA. The aim of this systematic review was to elucidate the impact of feedback on the effectiveness of WBA in postgraduate medical training.
Methods: Searches were conducted using the following bibliographic databases to identify original published studies related to WBA and the role of feedback: Medline (1950-December 2010), Embase (1980-December 2010) and Journals@Ovid (English language only, 1996-December 2010). Studies which attempted to evaluate the role of feedback in WBA involving postgraduate doctors were included.
Results: 15 identified studies met the inclusion criteria and minimum quality threshold. They were heterogeneous in methodological design. 7 studies focused on multi source feedback, 3 studies were based on mini-clinical evaluation exercise, 2 looked at procedural based assessment, one study looked at workplace based assessments in general and 2 studies looked at a combination of 3 to 6 workplace based assessments. 7 studies originated from the United Kingdom. Others were from Canada, the United States and New Zealand. Study populations were doctors in various grades of training from a wide range of specialties including general practice, general medicine, general surgery, dermatology, paediatrics and anaesthetics. All studies were prospective in design, and non-comparative descriptive or observational studies using a variety of methods including questionnaires, one to one interviews and focus groups.
Conclusions: The evidence base contains few high quality conclusive studies and more studies are required to provide further evidence for the effect of feedback from workplace based assessment on subsequent performance. There is, however, good evidence that if well implemented, feedback from workplace based assessments, particularly multisource feedback, leads to a perceived positive effect on practice.

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